Gwinnett was also, briefly, the provisional president of Georgia in 1777, and was involved in drafting the Georgia State Constitution.
Lachlan McIntosh was his political adversary, who challenged him to a duel in 1777. They met near Savannah on May 16 of that year for the duel and both were injured. McIntosh survived his injury, but Gwinnett survived for three days and then died on May 19 at the age of 42. He is buried in Colonial Park Cemetery in Savannah.